Image quality-

We strive to create an image that is as exact in its likeness of the subject as possible.We can achieve an exact likeness only with a system offering perfect image quality. In practice, our systems are less than perfect, so the images are not exact reproductions. Image quality comprises a complicated set of factors, some of which are within our control while others are intrinsic to, and set by , our equipment.


sharpness determines the amount of detail an image can convey : It requires the ability to separate two items that are very close together - resolution. At the same time, the separation of detail must be at a contrast that is visible or that can be used by the system. Sharpness is fundamentally limited by the level of corection of lens abberations and by the characteristics of the image capture, such as the quality of the film or sensor being used.factors such as accuracy of focus, choice of shuitter speed, and aperture setting also contribute to the image sharpness. There are other factors, such as mist or dust in the air, that may also limit sharpness, but these are things outside of our control.

Tonal accuracy-

A tonally accurate image is the one which the camera and lens system ( along with other equipment ) has correctly reproduced the variation of light in a particular scene. The most important element for this is the correct exposure. A variation in exposure will influence the tonality of the photograph. The tonality of the image determines the way in which the photograph reproduces the scale of light from highlights to low lights through the midtones. This shift in tonality can be smooth or sudden depending upon how it is illuminated or the dynamic range of the photographic equipment especially the sensor or the film. The tones may change rapidly or maybe gradual with a huge range of tones in between. The tonal range may match with the original or deviate due to the equipment limitations or for artistic expression of a mood.

Dynamic range

This in a photograph refers to the difference between the brightest and the darkest or the detail in the highlights and the low lights. If there is detail in both highlights and the dark tones, the photograph has good dynamic range. Not every photograph may inherently have a good dynamic range or a wide range of tones. our photographic equipment tends to record a lower dynamic range compared to as it exists in a scene. This further gets reduced on a photographic paper or a magazine paper dues to printing limitations. Good cameras often have good dynamic range. Bigger sensors also register a higher dynamic range compared to smaller sensors.  

The direction and quality of light also at times restricts the dynamic range in a photograph. we often increase contrast in some photographs for more dramatic effects. 

Not the last lightNot the last light

Dynamic range does n't always have to be more. There is quite a lot of tonal range in the scene outside the window. The interiors of the ship are darker and that is what is helping show the detail outside. The outside would have lost significance in this photograph had there been detail inside as well.


In film, noise is caused by the uneven distribution and variation in the size of the grain. In digital photography noise causes variations in the values of individual pixels and is aggravated with higher speed and longer exposures. It is more prominently visible in shadow areas. Noise adversely effects sharpness, tonal accuracy and purity of colours. However, technology has improved over a period of time and newer cameras deal far better with noise related issues compared to the earlier cameras at the onset of digital photography. 

color accuracy

with digital photography and access to image editing softwares, photographers tend to over saturate colours compared to how they exist otherwise. The camera's ability plays an important role specifically the color gamut of the camera. The film used to play an important role eralier and diferent brands used to have a bias towards one color or the other. or they would reproduce color differently when compared together. The same difference exists now in terms of the camera brands, the way their sensors respond to the colours.

The quality of lenses also influences the color and certain lenses may introduce their own cast over the colors, hence adding a lens characteristic. Saturation also gets reduced by the internal reflections of the lens as well as the natural outside environmental reflections. 

© munish khanna photography© munish khanna photography © munish khanna photography© munish khanna photography © munish khanna photography© munish khanna photography